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              執業藥師《中藥一》:能炒的不只有菜,還有中藥

              來源:233網校 2019年5月31日
              <span style="font-size: 16px;">無標題文檔</span>

              日常生活中,能炒的是菜。天上飛的水里游的地上跑的,只有你想不到的,沒有人吃不了的。而對于我們學藥的人來說,能炒的不只有菜,還有中藥,能單炒,也能加"佐料"炒。炒菜用到的配料炒中藥同樣適用。感謝我們先輩天馬行空的想象力及行動力,讓我們能享受到現代這些智慧結晶。

              下面我們就來聊聊做法多樣的中藥。

              一、炒法

              沒錯!這個就是我們平常的做菜三步驟,洗凈、切塊、上鍋炒。不過有區別的是菜絕不能炒糊,而有些中藥專門需要“炒糊”以達到特殊作用。還有加干燥輔料炒的,同樣是為了達到某種效果。不同的中藥有不同的炒制方法,千萬別弄混哦!另外還要記住一句話“逢子必炒”。

              炒法

              常用中藥

              炒黃(增效,減毒,緩和藥性)

              牛蒡子、芥子、萊菔子、蒼耳子、王不留行

              炒焦(增效,減少刺激性)

              山楂、梔子

              炒炭(增效,增加止血止瀉作用)

              大薊、蒲黃、荊芥、槐花、側伯葉

              麩炒(增效,緩和藥性,矯臭)

              枳殼、蒼術、白術、山藥、芡實、枳實、薏苡仁、僵蠶

              米炒(增效,減毒,矯味)

              斑蝥、黨參、紅娘子、昆蟲類

              土炒(增補脾止瀉效用)

              白術、山藥

              砂炒(增效,減毒,矯味)

              狗脊、穿山甲、馬錢子、骨碎補、鱉甲、雞內金、臍帶

              滑石粉炒(使質酥,減毒,矯味)

              水蛭、黃狗腎、刺猬皮

              蛤粉炒(使質酥,降膩,矯味)

              阿膠,鹿角膠

              二、炙法

              這里和上面的不一樣,這里加的都是液體輔料拌炒,稱作“炙法”。

              炙法

              常用中藥

              酒炙(改變藥性,引藥上行,增效,矯臭)

              大黃、黃連、當歸、蘄蛇、白芍、丹參、川芎

              醋炙(減毒,增強活血止痛,矯臭矯味)

              甘遂、延胡索、乳香、香附、柴胡

              鹽炙(增效,緩和藥性,增強滋陰降火)

              杜仲、黃柏、澤瀉、車前子

              姜炙(增強和胃止嘔,緩和副作用)

              厚樸、竹茹

              蜜炙(增強潤肺止咳、補脾益氣,緩和藥性)

              黃芪、甘草、枇杷葉、麻黃

              油炙(增效,利于粉碎)

              淫羊藿、蛤蚧、三七

              三、鍛法
              簡單來講就是用火燒,或者加輔料燒。

              鍛法

              常用中藥

              明煅(使質酥,除結晶水,增效)

              白礬、石決明、石膏

              煅淬(使質酥,減毒,增效,去雜質)

              赭石、自然銅、爐甘石

              扣鍋煅(產生或增強止血作用,減毒)

              血余炭、干漆

              四、蒸、煮、燀法(水火共制法)
              上鍋蒸,加水煮,燀(讀音:chan,第三聲)類似于蔬菜焯水的做法,置沸水中短時間浸煮在撈出。

              炮制方法

              常用中藥

              蒸(增效,緩和藥性,減副作用,利于貯存,便于軟化切制)

              何首烏、黃芩、地黃、人參、天麻、黃精、木瓜、桑嘌呤

              煮(減毒,清潔藥物)

              藤黃、川烏、草烏、附子、吳茱萸、遠志、硫磺

              燀(去除非藥用部位,分離要用部位)

              苦杏仁、白扁豆、桃仁

              五、其他炮制方法
              比菜更多樣化的做法。如復制:反復炮制。發酵:類似老壇酸菜做法。發芽:跟種菜一樣。制霜:去油制成粉末或結晶。煨:濕紙包裹或吸油紙隔層放再加熱。提凈:溶解,過濾,重結晶。水飛:不溶于水的藥在水中研磨,分離不同顆粒粉末。

              其他制法

              常用中藥

              復制(減毒,增效,矯臭矯味)

              半夏、天南星、白附子、紫河車

              發酵(產生新治療作用,增效)

              六神曲、建神曲、淡豆豉、半夏曲

              發芽(增效,擴大用藥品種)

              麥芽

              制霜(減毒,緩和藥性,降副作用)

              巴豆、柏子仁、西瓜霜、砒霜

              煨(降副作用,增效,緩和藥性)

              肉豆蔻、木香、訶子、葛根

              提凈(增效,緩和藥性,減毒)

              芒硝

              水飛(去雜質,去除毒性物質)

              朱砂、雄黃

              今天給大家總結了一下各類“菜”的不同做法,普通的菜用不同方法做只是口感不同,但是中藥用錯方法可能會有毒或失去療效,所以千萬別記錯方法!

              例題:

              [單選題]常用蜂蜜炮制的藥物有 (  )

              A.厚樸

              B.甘草

              C天麻

              D.黃連

              E.僵蠶

              參考答案:B
              參考解析:甘草常用蜜炙。厚樸常用姜炙;黃連常用酒炮炙;僵蠶適宜麩炒。

              [單選題]用煅淬法炮制的藥物是(  )

              A.明礬

              B.自然銅

              C.血余炭

              D.石決明

              E.石膏

              參考答案:B
              參考解析:自然銅用煅淬法炮制。明礬、石決明和石膏常用明鍛法;血余炭宜扣鍋鍛法。

              學習資料:

              執業藥師《中藥綜》易混淆考點--五行學說

              十分鐘速記執業藥師《中藥二》考點芳香化濕藥

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